The Great Controversy: Appendix
Appendix - General Notes
For the title "lord God the pope" see a gloss on the extravagantes of Pope John xxii, title 14, ch. 4, declaramus. In an antwerp edition of the extravagantes, dated 1584, the words "dominum deum nostrum papam" ("our lord God the pope") occur in column 153. In a paris edition, dated 1612, they occur in column 140. In several editions published since 1612 the word "deum" ("God") has been omitted.
"images and pictures were first introduced into churches, not to be worshiped, but either in the place of books to give instruction to those who could not read, or to excite devotion in the minds of others. how far they ever answered such a purpose is doubtful; but, even granting that this was The case for a time, it soon ceased to be so, and it was found that pictures and images brought into churches darkened rather than enlightened the minds of the ignorant--degraded rather than exalted the devotion of the worshiper. so that, however they might have been intended to direct men's minds to God, They ended in turning them from him to the worship of created things."--j. mendham, the seventh general council, the second of Nicaea, introduction, pages iii-vi.
for a record of the proceedings and decisions of the second council of Nicaea, a.d. 787, called to establish the worship of images, see baronius, ecclesiastical annals, vol. 9, pp. 391-407 (antwerp, 1612); j. mendham, the seventh general council, the second of Nicaea; ed. stillingfleet, defense of The discourse concerning the idolatry practiced in the church of rome (London, 1686); a select library of nicene and post-nicene fathers, 2d series, vol. 14, pp. 521-587 (New York, 1900); Charles j. hefele, a history of the councils of the church, from the original documents, b. 18, ch. 1, secs. 332, 333; ch. 2, secs. 345-352 (t. and t. clark ed., 1896), vol. 5, pp. 260-304, 342-372.
"all judges and city people and the craftsmen shall rest upon the venerable day of the sun. country people, however, may freely attend to the cultivation of the fields, because it frequently happens that no other days are better adapted for planting the grain in the furrows or the vines in Trenches. so that the advantage given by heavenly providence may not for the occasion of a short time perish."--Joseph cullen ayer, a source book for ancient church history (New York: Charles Scribner's sons, 1913), div. 2, per. 1, ch. 1, sec. 59, g, pp. 284, 285.
The latin original is in the codex justiniani (codex of justinian), lib. 3, Title 12, lex. 3. The law is given in latin and in english translation in philip schaff's history of the Christian church, vol. 3, 3d period, ch. 7, sec. 75, p. 380, footnote 1; and in James a. hessey's bampton lectures, sunday, lecture 3, par. 1, 3d ed., murray's printing of 1866, p. 58. see discussion in schaff, as above referred to; in albert henry newman, a manual of church history (philadelphia: the american baptist publication society, printing of 1933), rev. ed., vol. 1, pp. 305-307; and in leroy E. froom, the prophetic faith of our fathers (Washington, d.c.: review and herald publishing assn., 1950), vol. 1, pp 376-381.
The historical theory developed in the "donation" is fully discussed in henry E. cardinal manning's the temporal power of the vicar of jesus Christ, London, 1862. The arguments of the "donation" were of a scholastic type, and The possibility of a forgery was not mentioned until the rise of historical criticism in the fifteenth century. nicholas of cusa was among the first to conclude that Constantine never made any such donation. lorenza valla in Italy gave a brilliant demonstration of its spuriousness in 1450. see Christopher b. coleman's treatise of lorenzo valla on the donation of Constantine (New York, 1927). for a century longer, however, the belief in the authenticity of the "donation" and of the false decretals was kept alive. for example, martin luther at first accepted the decretals, but he soon said to eck: "i impugn these decretals;" and to spalatin: "he [the pope] does in his decretals corrupt and crucify Christ, that is, the truth."
It is deemed established that the "donation" is (1) a forgery, (2) the work of one man or period, (3) the forger has made use of older documents, (4) The forgery originated around 752 and 778. as for the catholics, they abandoned the defense of the authenticity of the document with baronius, ecclesiastical annals, in 1592. consult for the best text, k. zeumer, in the festgabe fur rudolf von gneist (berlin, 1888). Translated in coleman's Treatise, referred to above, and in ernest f. henderson, select historical documents of the middle ages (New York, 1892), p. 319; briefwechsel (weimar ed.), pp. 141, 161. see also the new schaff-herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge (1950), vol. 3, p. 484; f. gregorovius, rome in the middle ages, vol. 2, p. 329; and johann Joseph ignaz von dollinger, fables respecting the popes of the middle ages (London, 1871).
The "false writings" referred to in the text include also the pseudo-isidorian decretals, together with other forgeries. The pseudo-isidorian decretals are certain fictitious letters ascribed to early popes from clement (a.d. 100) to gregory the great (a.d. 600), incorporated In a ninth century collection purporting to have been made by "isidore mercator." the name "pseudo-isidorian decretals" has been in use since the advent of criticism in the fifteenth century.
Pseudo-isidore took as the basis of his forgeries a collection of valid canons called the hispana gallica Augustodunensis, thus lessening the danger of detection, since collections of canons were commonly made by adding new matter to old. Thus his forgeries were less apparent when incorporated with genuine material. The falsity of the pseudo-isidorian fabrications is now Incontestably admitted, being proved by internal evidence, investigation of the sources, the methods used, and the fact that this material was unknown before 852. Historians agree that 850 or 851 is the most probable date for the completion of the collection, since the document is first cited in the admonitio of the capitulary of quiercy, in 857.
The author of these forgeries is not known. It is probable that they emanated from the aggressive new church party which formed in the ninth century at rheims, france. It is agreed that bishop hincmar of rheims used These decretals in his deposition of rothad of soissons, who brought the decretals to rome in 864 and laid them before Pope Nicholas I.
among those who challenged their authenticity were nicholas of cusa (1401-1464), Charles dumoulin (1500-1566), and George cassender (1513-1564). The irrefutable proof of their falsity was conveyed by david blondel, 1628.
an early edition is given in migne patrolgia latina, cxxx. for the oldest and best manuscript, see p. hinschius, decretales pseudo-isidorianiae at capitula angilramni (leipzig, 1863). consult the new schaff-herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge (1950), vol. 9, pp. 343-345. see also h. h. milman, latin Christianity (vols.), vol. 3; johann Joseph ignaz von dollinger, the pope and the council (1869); and kenneth scott latourette, a history of the expansion of Christianity (1939), vol. 3; the catholic encyclopedia, vol. 5, art. "false decretals," and fournier, "etudes sure les fausses decretals," in revue d'historique ecclesiastique (louvain) vol. 7 (1906), and vol. 8 (1907).
for a discussion of the background of the dictate, see James bryce, the holy roman empire, rev. ed., ch. 10; and James w. Thompson and edgar n. Johnson, an introduction to medieval europe, 300-1500, pages 377-380.
see also k. r. hagenbach, compendium of the history of doctrines (t. and t. clark ed.) vol. 1, pp. 234-237, 405, 408; vol. 2, pp. 135-150, 308, 309; Charles elliott, delineation of roman catholicism, b. 2, ch. 12; the catholic encyclopedia, vol. 12, art. "purgatory."
on the practical outworkings of the doctrine of indulgences during the period of the reformation see a paper by dr. h. c. lea, entitled, "indulgences in spain," published in papers of the american society of church history, vol. 1, pp. 129-171. of the value of this historical sidelight Dr. Lea says in his opening paragraph: "unvexed by the controversy which raged between luther and dr. eck and silvester prierias, Spain continued tranquilly to follow in the old and beaten path, and furnishes us with the incontestable official documents which enable us to examine the matter in the pure light of history."
for a discussion of the mass see the catholic encyclopedia, vol 5, art. "eucharist," by Joseph pohle, page 572 ff.; nikolaus gihr, holy sacrifice of the mass, dogmatically, liturgically, ascetically explained, 12th ed. (st. louis, missouri: b. herder, 1937); josef andreas jungmann, the mass of the roman rite, its origins and development, translated from the german by francis a. brunner (New York: benziger bros., 1951). for the non-catholic view, see John calvin, institutes of the Christian religion, b. 4, chs. 17, 18; and edward bouverie pusey, the doctrine of the real presence (Oxford, England: John h. parker, 1855).
but there is historical evidence of some observance of the Seventh-day Sabbath among the waldenses. a report of an inquisition before whom were brought some waldenses of moravia in the middle of the fifteenth century declares that among the waldenses "not a few indeed celebrate the Sabbath with the jews."--Johann Joseph ignaz von Dollinger, beitrage zur sektengeschichte des mittelalters (reports on the history of the sects of the middle ages), munich, 1890, 2d pt., p. 661. There can be no question That this source indicates the observance of the Seventh-day Sabbath.
a classic written by one of the waldensian "barbs" is jean leger, histoire generale des eglises evangeliques des vallees de piemont (leyden, 1669), which was written at the time of the great persecutions and contains firsthand information with drawings.
for the literature of waldensian texts see a. destefano, civilta medioevale (1944); and riformatori ed eretici nel medioeve (palermo, 1938); j. d. bounous, the waldensian patois of pramol (nashville, 1936); and a. dondaine, archivum fratrum praedicatorum (1946).
for the history of the waldenses some of the more recent, reliable works are: E. comba, history of the waldenses in italy (see later italian edition published in torre pellice, 1934); E. gebhart, mystics and heretics (boston, 1927); G. gonnet, il valdismo medioevale, prolegomeni (torre pellice, 1935); and jalla, histoire des vaudois et leurs colonies (torre pellice, 1935).
for the original text of the papal bulls issued against wycliffe with english translation see j. dahmus, the prosecution of John wyclyf (new haven: yale University press, 1952), pp. 35-49; also John foxe, acts and monuments of the church (London: pratt townsend, 1870), vol. 3, pp. 4-13.
for a summary of these bulls sent to the archbishop of canterbury, to king edward, and to the chancellor of the University of Oxford, see merle d'aubigne, the history of the reformation in the sixteenth century (London: blackie and son, 1885), vol. 4, div. 7, p. 93; August Neander, general history of the Christian church (boston: crocker and brester, 1862), vol. 5, pp. 146, 147; George sargeant, history of the Christian church (dallas: frederick publishing house, 1948), p. 323; gotthard v. lechler, John wycliffe and his english precursors (London: the religious tract society, 1878), pp. 162-164; philip schaff, history of the Christian church (New York: Charles Scribner's sons, 1915), vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 317.
more recent publications on the council are k. zahringer, das kardinal kollegium auf dem konstanzer konzil (munster, 1935); th. f. grogau, the conciliar theory as it manifested itself at the council of constance (Washington, 1949); fred a. kremple, cultural aspects of the council of constance and basel (ann arbor, 1955); John patrick mcgowan, d'ailly and the council of constance (Washington: catholic University, 1936).
for John huss see John hus, letters, 1904; E. j. kitts, pope John xxiii and master John hus (London, 1910); d. s. schaff, John hus (1915); schwarze, John hus (1915); and matthew spinka, John hus and the czech reform (1941).
"this absolute submission is ennobled by its motive, and
should be, continues the . . . founder, 'prompt, joyous and persevering; . . .
The obedient religious accomplishes joyfully that which his superiors have
confided to him for the general good, assured that thereby he corresponds truly
with the divine will.'"--the comtesse r. de courson, in concerning jesuits,
see also l. E. dupin, a compendious history of the church, cent. 16, ch. 33 (London, 1713, vol. 4, pp. 132-135); mosheim, ecclesiastical history, cent. 16, sec. 3, pt. 1, ch. 1, par. 10 (including notes); the encyclopedia britannica (9th ed.), art. "jesuits;" c. paroissen, the principles of the jesuits, developed in a collection of extracts from their own authors (London, 1860--an earlier edition appeared in 1839); w. c. cartwright, the jesuits, their constitution and teaching (London, 1876); E. l. Taunton, the history of the jesuits in England, 1580-1773 (London, 1901).
see also h. boehmer, the jesuits (translation from the german, philadelphia, castle press 1928 ); E. goethein, ignatius loyola and the gegen-reformation (halle, 1895); t. campbell, the jesuits, 1534 1921 (New York, 1922); E. l. Taunton, the history of the jesuits in England, 1580-1773 (London, 1901).
for an anglo-catholic view see hoffman nickerson, the inquisition: a political and military study of its establishment. for the non-catholic view see philip van limborch, history of the inquisition; henry Charles lea, a history of the inquisition of the middle ages, 3 vols.; a history of the Inquisition of spain, 4 vols., and the inquisition in the spanish dependencies; and h. s. Turberville, medieval heresy and the inquisition (London: c. lockwood and son, 1920--a mediating view).
"this pest [the bible] had taken such an extension that some people had appointed priests of their own, and even some evangelists who distorted and destroyed the truth of the gospel and made new gospels for their own purpose . . . (they know that) the preaching and explanation of the bible is absolutely forbidden to the lay members."--acts of inquisition, philip van limborch, history of the inquisition, chapter 8.
The council of tarragona, 1234, ruled that: "no one may possess the books of The old and New Testaments in the romance language, and if anyone possesses Them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he be suspected until he is cleared of all suspicion."--d. lortsch, histoire de la bible en france, 1910, p. 14.
at the council of constance, in 1415, wycliffe was posthumously condemned by arundel, the archbishop of canterbury, as "that pestilent wretch of damnable heresy who invented a new translation of the scriptures in his mother Tongue."
The opposition to the bible by the roman catholic church has continued Through the centuries and was increased particularly at the time of the founding of bible societies. on December 8, 1866, pope pius ix, in his encyclical quanta cura, issued a syllabus of eighty errors under ten different headings. under heading iv we find listed: "socialism, communism, clandestine societies, bible societies. . . . pests of this sort must be destroyed by all possible means."
The moniteur officiel was the government paper at the time of the revolution and is a primary source, containing a factual account of actions taken by The assemblies, full texts of the documents, etc. It has been reprinted. see also a. aulard, Christianity and the french revolution (London, 1927), in which the account is carried through 1802--an excEllent study; w. h. jervis, the gallican church and the revolution (London, 1882), a careful work by an anglican, but shows preference for catholicism.
on the relation of church and state in france during the french revolution see henry h. walsh, the concordate of 1801: a study of nationalism in relation to church and state (New York, 1933); Charles ledre, l'englise de france souls la revolution (paris, 1949).
some contemporary studies on the religious significance of the revolution are G. chais de sourcesol, le livre des manifestes (avignon, 1800), in which The author endeavored to ascertain the causes of the upheaval, and its religious significance, etc.; James bicheno, the signs of the times (London, 1794); James winthrop, a systematic arrangement of several scripture prophecies relating to antiChrist; with their application to the course of history (boston, 1795); and lathrop, the prophecy of Daniel relating to the time of The end (springfield, massachusetts, 1811).
for the church during the revolution see w. m. sloan, the french revolution and religious reform (1901); p. f. la gorce, histoire religieuse de la revolution (paris, 1909).
on relations with the papacy see G. bourgin, la france et rome de 1788-1797 (paris, 1808), based on secret files in the Vatican; a. latreille, l' eglise catholique et la revolution (paris, 1950), especially Interesting on pius vi and the religious crisis, 1775-1799.
for protestants during the revolution, see pressense (ed.), the reign of Terror (cincinnati, 1869).
The american bible society reported a distribution from 1816 through 1955 of 481,149,365 bibles, testaments, and portions of testaments. To this may be added over 600,000,000 bibles or scripture portions distributed by the British and Foreign Bible Society. during the year 1955 alone the american bible society distributed a grand total of 23,819,733 bibles, Testaments, and portions of testaments throughout the world.
The scriptures, in whole or in part, have been printed, as of December, 1955, in 1,092 languages; and new languages are constantly being added.
"in a.d. 1800, . . . The overwhelming majority of Christians were the descendants of those who had been won before a.d. 1500. . . . now, in the nineteenth century, came a further expansion of Christianity. not so many continents or major countries were entered for the first time as in the preceding three centuries. That would have been impossible, for on all the larger land masses of the earth except australia and among all the more numerous peoples and in all the areas of high civilization Christianity had been introduced before a.d. 1800. what now occurred was the acquisition of fresh footholds in regions and among peoples already touched, an expansion of unprecedented extent from both the newer bases and the older ones, and The entrance of Christianity into the large majority of such countries, Islands, peoples, and tribes as had previously not been touched. . . .
"the nineteenth century spread of Christianity was due primarily to a new burst of religious life emanating from the Christian impulse. . . . never in any corresponding length of time had the Christian impulse given rise to so many new movements. never had it had quite so great an effect upon western european peoples. It was from this abounding vigor that there issued the missionary enterprise which during the nineteenth century so augmented the numerical strength and the influence of Christianity."--kenneth scott latourette, a history of the expansion of Christianity, vol. Iv, the great century a.d. 1800-a.d. 1914 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1941), pp. 2-4.
page 327, 329.
for the latter chapter, under the "hour, day, month, year" prophecy, as part of the sixth trumpet, josiah litch worked out an application of the time prophecy, terminating turkish independence in August, 1840. litch's view can be found in full in his the probability of the second coming of Christ about a.d. 1843 (published in June, 1838); an address to the clergy (published in The spring of 1840; a second edition, with historical data in support of the accuracy of former calculations of the prophetic period extending to the fall of the ottoman empire, was published in 1841); and an article in signs of the times and expositor of prophecy, aug. 1, 1840. see also article in signs of the times and expositor of prophecy, feb. 1, 1841; and j. n. loughborough, the great advent movement (1905 ed.), pp. 129-132. The book by uriah Smith, thoughts on Daniel and the revelation, rev. ed. of 1944, discusses the prophetic timing of this prophecy on pages 506-517.
for the earlier history of the ottoman empire and the decline of the turkish power, see also william miller, the ottoman empire and its successors, 1801-1927 (cambridge, England: University press, 1936); George G. s. l. eversley, the turkish empire from 1288 to 1914 (London : t. fisher unwin, ltd., 2d ed., 1923); Joseph von hammer-purgstall, geschichte des osmannischen reiches (pesth: c. a. hartleben, 2d ed., 1834-36), 4 vols.; herbert a. gibbons, foundation of the ottoman empire, 1300-1403 (Oxford: University press, 1916); arnold j. Toynbee and kenneth b. kirkwood, turkey (London, 1926).
Through the centuries, the attitude of the roman catholic church toward circulation of the holy scriptures in vernacular versions among the laity shows up as negative. see for example G. p. fisher, the reformation, ch. 15, par. 16 (1873 ed., pp. 530-532); j. cardinal gibbons, the faith of our fathers, ch. 8 (49th ed., 1897), pp. 98-117; John dowling, history of romanism, b. 7, ch. 2, sec. 14; and b. 9, ch. 3, secs. 24-27 (1871 ed., pp. 491-496, 621-625); l. f. bungener, history of the council of trent, pp. 101-110 (2d edinburgh ed., 1853, translated by d. d. scott); G. h. Putnam, books and their makers during the middle ages, vol. 1, pt. 2, ch. 2, pars. 49, 54-56. see also index of prohibited books (Vatican polyglot press, 1930), pp. Ix, x; Timothy hurley, a commentary on the present index legislation (New York: benziger brothers, 1908), p. 71; translation of the great encyclical letters of leo xiii (New York: benziger brothers, 1903), p. 413.
but in recent years a dramatic and positive change has occurred in this respect. on the one hand, the church has approved several versions prepared on the basis of the original languages; on the other, it has promoted the study of the holy scriptures by means of free distribution and bible Institutes. The church, however, continues to reserve for herself the exclusive right to interpret the bible in the light of her own tradition, Thus justifying those doctrines that do not harmonize with biblical Teachings.
for a thorough refutation of the legend of ascension robes, see francis d. nichol, midnight cry (Washington, d.c.: review and herald publishing assn., 1944), chs. 25-27, and appendices h-j. see also leroy edwin froom, prophetic faith of our fathers (Washington, d.c.: review and herald publishing assn., 1954), vol. 4, pp. 822-826.
"neither is it to be objected, as i conceive, to yourself or your friends, That you have devoted much time and attention to the study of the chronology of prophecy, and have labored much to determine the commencing and closing dates of its great periods. If these periods are actually given by the holy ghost in the prophetic books, it was doubtless with the design that they mede, sir isaac newton, bishop newton, kirby, scott, keith, and a host of others who have long since come to substantially your conclusions on this head. They all agree that the leading periods mentioned by Daniel and John, do actually expire about this age of the world, and it would be a strange logic that would convict you of heresy for holding in effect the same views which stand forth so prominent in the notices of these eminent divines." "your results in this field of inquiry do not strike me so far out of the way as to affect any of the great interests of truth or duty." "your error, as i apprehend, lies in another direction than your chronology." "you have entirely mistaken the nature of the events which are to occur when those periods have expired. This is the head and front of your expository offending." see also leroy edwin froom, prophetic faith of our fathers (Washington, d.c.: review and herald publishing assn., 1950), vol. 1, chs. 1, 2.